Since 1990, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has accounted for more than 60% of the growth in global defence spending. In close to three decades, China has built a remarkable armament, with military drones and the odd unreliable stealth fighter, and is making some solid progress with AI. Just like the superpowers before, China aspires to have strong armed forces. But any good military needs good soldiers – for now at least.
Last September we noted the PLA slammed young Chinese males’ high failure rates in fitness tests, attributing unhealthy lifestyles, too many fizzy drinks, masturbation and video games, which has contributed to a complete freeze of new game approvals. But it turns out the Military’s issues with the male gene pool span far deeper.
It seems China has a masculinity crisis. Whilst Beijing has banned hip hop culture and tattoos from TV, for now it is a free-for-all for ‘feminine-looking’ boybands, which has led to much debate online. In September, state media outlet Xinhua declared “these sissies promote an unhealthy and unnatural culture which has a not-to-underestimate negative impact on the youth. The sissy culture, driven by consumption, challenges the public order and worships a decadent lifestyle”. Niángpàonán, or ‘sissy-boys’ has become a popular term online for Chinese males paying much attention to their clothing, hair, and make-up.
In some Chinese cities, males born in the 80s are more likely to own a pair of platform shoes than work boots or cleats. Yet effeminism is less of a concern than other trends seducing Chinese males. One teenager in eastern China bankrupted his parents by tipping a livestream host $37,000, claiming she was his girlfriend. China has more than 150 live stream sites, mostly funded by tipping from the 80% male viewership.
Whilst every male in China isn’t a gaming, live-stream-addicted ‘sissy boy’, as marketers it’s important to consider that this group has more spending power than the total consumption of many countries. They have their own distinct needs and respond differently to marketing than males on the streets of Sydney or Seattle, and even other sub-tribes in China. China Skinny can assist your brand with defining their needs and planning how to best resonate with them.
Not all is lost for concerned parents across China. Their desperation for their one-child to be a boy saw the male:female birth imbalance hit 1.15:1 in 2016 (second only to Liechtenstein). For those wanting their boy to be a hǎohàn – a real man, there are ¥10,000 ($1,400) training camps aimed to tackle the “crisis in boys’ education” and “help them find their lost masculinity.”
On another note, a big hat tip to Alibaba who continue to reach new heights with their 11.11/Singles’ Day extravaganza, growing 27% from last year’s massive base (in RMB terms) to $30.8 billion in gross merchandise value. See the infographic here. JD had similar growth of 26% on their 11-day Single’s Day festival, with sales climbing to $23 billion.
Your Thoughts: We received some passionate responses to our article about CIIE last week, not all of it positive. Over the past week we’ve spoken to a number of brands who exhibited at the event – some considered it a roaring success, other reviews were mixed. We’d love to hear your thoughts if you were there. Similarly please let us know how Singles’ Day went for you. Just reply to this email with any comments or feedback. Go to Page 2 to see this week’s China news and highlights.
The last few weeks have been abuzz with tech chatter in China. You’re probably thinking that’s nothing new, but the significant change in tone has piqued our interest. IPOs for Xiaomi and Tencent Music and the expansive 2018 China Internet Report have been grabbing headlines, but beneath all that many experts are starting to ask the question: has China taken the mantle from Silicon Valley as the leader in tech?
In the blink of an eye China has done the unthinkable and transformed its cheap, copycat perception into that of a world leader in innovation. And this trend is contagious amongst China’s brands both in and outside of the tech sector; in 2018 consumers view 82 of China’s biggest 100 brands as highly or moderately innovative.
Leading the pack the stories of Xiaomi and JD are representative of how brands here are tracking. Xiaomi’s founder Lei Jun proclaims his company “a new species”, blending internet services within its product ecosystem and shrugging off any classification as a hardware company. JD notes they’ve now spent 12 years as a retailer and want “the next 12 years to be as a technology company”. We even just looked at Luckin Coffee creating an innovative New Retail-type model to combat one of the last truly unchallenged foreign mega-brands.
As the world begins to note what this host of dynamic Chinese brands is doing, it pays to keep in mind what this has meant for the average Chinese consumer and what they expect from brands across all aspects of consumer engagement. A few examples:
We have seen a dramatic rise in gaming, VR, animation and development within accounts to try stand apart on social media. The boom in mini-programmes has only exaggerated this and many foreign brands are in dire need of rethinking their WeChat approach.
Retail is constantly in flux, with opportunities and pitfalls abundant for brands who aren’t diligent. In China’s uber-competitive space, pop-ups can bring the oomph today’s shoppers are looking for as they increasingly crave an experience.
- Advertising: China in 2018 is a different animal, and misaligned messages are throwing good money after bad.
Tired or uninformed advertising has seen many a brand fall short in China, yet some well-considered research and understanding can see a brand ride the wave. Last month through a challenging but well-embraced campaign, Nike captured the end of the mollycoddling one-child policy, a huge national push to get children into sports & activity, and the competitive and individualistic millennials ascending into parenthood.
As everyone in China knows, the market moves faster here than anywhere, and for that reason many brands will fall in the wake of its constant innovation. China Skinny ensures our clients are on top of and ahead of market trends. If you want to be in the best position to tackle China, drop us a line. Go to Page 2 to see this week’s China news and highlights.
There’s no shortage of coverage about China’s New Retail revolution, its mouthwatering rise of shared bikes and its 227 million active users, along with WeChat, ecommerce, mobile payments and other uniquely China trends such as cream cheese tea and face-kinis. Yet there are many other phenomenons happening in China that attract less attention but are also impacting consumers at a level that brands should take notice of. Here are three trends that Skinny readers are likely to be aware of, but maybe less familiar with the full scale and speed of their rise:
1. Consumer Credit
Consumption has been the most robust sector of China’s economy in recent years, with growth trucking along at double digits as long as most can remember. While other factors such as manufacturing, investment and house prices haven’t maintained the same momentum, three contributors have allowed Chinese consumers to defy the odds and keep spending more and more: record consumer optimism, soaring wage growth (with China’s hourly incomes now exceeding every Latin American country except Chile) and rising consumer credit.
Although China is well known for its high saving rates, these figures are skewed by older folk. The younger generation haven’t lived through the same periods of austerity and feel much less need to save for a rainy day. They’ve seen their wages grow every year, their parent’s real estate assets soar, and have been lured by the bright lights of consumerism – often calling on easy credit to spend more than they earn. Between 2015 and 2017 consumer credit grew fivefold, with those aged 24-35 making up more than 70% of consumer borrowers in China.
2. ByteDance’s Douyin
At a much more micro level, some brands looking for ‘the next WeChat’ could be heartened by the remarkable rise of Douyin and the overall ascent of short video. Launched less than two years ago, Douyin’s user numbers have quadrupled since January to boast more than 150 million daily active users watching an average of 82 short videos a day. The 15 second videos serve Chinese millennials’ craving of instant gratification, to fill any down-moment with cheap entertainment. Douyin’s growth has been so drastic that even Tencent has felt threatened and banned the service on WeChat last month. Douyin’s popularity and rapid rise has enabled fast-moving brands to use the platform to build awareness and preference with those indebted young consumers at a fraction of the cost of the more crowded and mature platforms like WeChat, Tmall and Weibo.
What makes Douyin, and its sister app Musical.ly, special is that they are two of the few Chinese apps that have been able to crack the elusive Western markets. Douyin, known as Tik Tok outside of China, was the most downloaded iPhone app in the world in Q1 of this year. Any concerns in the US about the Chinese Government monitoring your every move, something which has plagued brands such as Huawei and even WeChat, seems to be irrelevant for the Western millennials shooting and watching short videos on Tik Tok.
3. DJI Drones
Drones, while not on the same scale as consumer finance or Douyin, are making an impact across many sectors in China. One company leading the way – DJI – has beaten out formidable American competitors such as GoPro and 3DR and now owns 70% of the world’s drone market. DJI’s confidence is represented by their new HQ being built in Shenzhen complete with a skybridge for testing drones and rings for fighting robots.
DJI is creating efficiencies in industries as diverse as agriculture and food delivery, which will have a downstream impact on supply and consumption in China. It is representative of increasing automation modernising China’s supply chain and logistics, particularly in the online-to-offline categories. DJI is symbolic of the rise of China’s ambitious mega-businesses who are investing real money in R&D, while remaining nimble and long term-focused to lead their category. Expect more to come.
Those are just three of the numerous developments coming from China daily, many which are likely to be relevant to your brand, or how you market it. Agencies such as China Skinny will ensure you keep up with those trends and develop a plan how to make the most of the opportunities they bring.
Speaking of trends, China Skinny’s Mark Tanner will be sharing more in Brisbane next Thursday July 5 speaking at the ACBC-Brisbane Airport Welcome for the Air China Direct Flights Between Beijing and Brisbane. If you’re at the event, please pop over and say ni hao. More information here. Go to Page 2 to see this week’s China news and highlights.
Just as live sports are helping prop up the old world of television advertising, they can also be a potent force in international relations and trade. We saw it with the ping pong diplomacy of the early 70s, and as sport becomes an important part of life in China, it will be an increasingly significant driver for geopolitical relations and the goods and services trade. FIFA, the NBA, snow sports and other physical activities are taking advantage of this. As proud supporters of rugby in Asia, China Skinny would be grateful to start seeing some real rugby love in the Middle Kingdom.
With the FIFA World Cup kicking off in Russia tomorrow, the trend is looking positive. During the month-long football festival there may be times visitors feel like they’re at a Guangzhou Evergrande Taobao match. Although China hasn’t played in a World Cup Finals since 2002, an estimated 100,000 Chinese are expected to visit Russia for the Cup, dwarfing the 10,000 football-mad English expected to be there – and their team qualified! On top of that, Chinese brands Hisense, Mengniu, Vivo, electric bike maker Yadea and Dalian Wanda are joining the party to plug the World Cup sponsorship gap.
Like many things in China, Xi Jinping’s passions and policy are helping drive China’s enthusiasm for the beautiful game. The avid football fan Xi hinted last year that China will be bidding to host a World Cup in 2030 or 2034 and will be a “world football superpower” by 2050. Feeding into the grand plan, Xi has announced that the number of football fields in China will grow from less than 11,000 in 2015 to 70,000 by 2020. China will have 50 million regular football players including 30 million students by then, and 50,000 schools will have a strong emphasis on football by 2025 – up from just 5,000 in 2015.
The 100,000 visitors are a sign of changing times in China. They illustrate how Chinese are increasingly able and prepared to spend big bucks on their leisure pursuits. Back in 2002 – when consumers were much less affluent than they are today – no more than 50,000 Chinese went to the World Cup Finals in South Korea and Japan when China was actually on the field.
The swathe of Chinese visitors ascending on Russia will have been further tempted by visa-free travel to its northern neighbour. On top of that, China’s blossoming relationship with Russia will also drive preference – as geopolitical circumstances usually do with Chinese travel trends. Russia seems to be the flavour of the month with Beijing as they look to provide a scalable alternative to Western ideologies. The friendship comes at a good time for China as its dog box is marred with imprints of South Korea’s THAAD, ASEAN-contested island building and river damming, Japanese-disputed islands and historic invasions, the encircling of India and territory skirmishes, undermining of Australian sovereignty, Europe’s wariness of Chinese investment, lack of reciprocal access and sporadic trade disputes, and Trump.
As a symbol of their bond, Vladimir Putin was presented China’s first ever “friendship medal” by President Xi at a lavish event broadcast live from the Great Hall of the People. Since becoming president, Xi has visited Moscow more than any other capital city and Putin said that Xi Jinping was the only world leader who celebrated his birthday. Putin was in China last week for the enlarged Russia-China led Eurasian SCO bloc meeting as the G7 floundered. Russia, which is managing its own diplomatic challenges elsewhere has recently signed a series of deals with China who announced relations between two countries were at “the best level in history.”
In short, this year’s World Cup couldn’t have been better timed for Russia to tap into the opportunity that China presents. For the Russian businesses that stand to benefit from an influx of Chinese visitors – let’s hope you make them welcome. Mobile payments and the slew of other China-ready initiatives will ensure they have a better time, spend more and advocate Russia to the masses at home. And good luck to the 32 nations who made it to the finals! Go to Page 2 to see this week’s China news and highlights.
Foreign brands scanning the news over the past week may have been sent on an emotional roller coaster. Although China Bears have been doom-talking about the economy for years, the World Bank’s latest update points to China’s GDP continuing to grow at a healthy 6.9% last year and 6.8% in Q1 this year. Consumption remains China’s growth driver, which is likely to continue given consumer confidence reached a 10-year high in the first quarter of 2018.
But on the flip-side, an FT article about increasingly wealthy Chinese consumers trading up referred to McKinsey research illustrating a pronounced consumer preference for local brands. Across 17 categories, infant formula and wine were the only two segments where foreign brands were preferred over domestic – and only by a whisker.
This is contrary to what China Skinny is seeing in the market. Consumers are often more familiar with domestic brands and their perceptions have become more positive – but we’re still seeing more favourable views for foreign products overall. Based on the feedback we’ve had from our extensive industry networks in China, we’re sure many foreign brands on the ground are seeing similar sentiment.
China Skinny has done deep, intimate and personal research and analysis with thousands of consumers across China. The numerous projects spanning many categories has found Chinese consumers virtually always still believe foreign brands are better – higher quality, more stylish, safer, healthier, etc.
In reality there is a disconnect. Whilst Chinese consumers usually favour foreign products, those brands aren’t servicing their needs well enough and aren’t where they want them to be. As Bain pointed out in the FMCG category, domestic brands grew 8% versus 1.5% for foreign brands in 2016. This result is not so much that they are seeking local products over foreign, but more reflective of nimbler Chinese brands who are reading the market better and acting more swiftly, coupled with stronger distribution networks and more resonant marketing.
As we highlighted in this infographic 18 months ago, dairy is a classic example of foreign brands not meeting needs. While the wounds of the 2008 melamine scandal may still cast a cloud over Chinese milk, domestic dairy commands a 38% premium per litre over imported. This is due to more appropriate format sizes, better-suited value-added products, more specific segmentation and more targeted marketing. China Skinny analysis has found similar results across many other categories.
Research by China’s Ministry of Commerce found 31% of surveyed consumers expect to spend more on imported products in the next six months and over 20% claim imported products account for at least 30% of their total consumption. Similarly, Chinese retailers plan to increase imports of over a third of 92 products surveyed. Although the results could be somewhat glossy due to current US-China trade negotiations and November’s massive China International Import Expo, they do reflect the general sentiment that Chinese consumers still relish imported products. It’s why Alibaba and JD with all of their data are busy opening up offices globally to source foreign products.
So with the good news from GDP growth to positive consumer sentiment, foreign brands are still well placed to tap into it if they ensure they interpret the market well and act quickly from it. Agencies like China Skinny can assist with the market interpretation stage, and help guide the resulting actions. Please contact us to find out more. Go to Page 2 to see this week’s China news and highlights.
There are many relatively unknown cities in China with GDPs as large as countries. For example, the city of Zibo has an economy the size of Panama’s and Tangshan’s GDP ranks up there with New Zealand by some measures. These smaller cities are helping drive China’s consumer demand, and by proxy, the global economy. Morgan Stanley forecasts that lower tier cities will account for two-thirds of the increase in consumption between now and 2030.
As China’s biggest cities have become the most crowded and contested markets on the planet, more and more brands are looking to cities like the Zibos and Tangshans where growth is often faster and competition less fierce. We only need to look at FMCG which has been growing 2-3 times faster in lower tier cities than big cities over recent years. In tourism, the 10 fastest growing airports by passenger numbers are all tier 2 cities and below. A third of all Cadillacs sold in China were bought in tier 3 & 4 cities.
Yet while it’s become common to talk about China’s less-competitive lower tier cities, brands shouldn’t just be throwing darts at maps and reviewing GDP figures in determining where to focus. Consumers in many lower tier cities don’t yet have a level of sophistication to demand many products and services.
Before looking to the hinterland, brands should critically assess consumer behaviour and preferences in those cities. Lifestyles, climate and travel habits are often as much of a contributor to demand for a product than GDP per capita. Ecommerce data, although much less developed than tier 1 and 2 cities, can also provide hints into potential demand. Even local government policy can impact consumer demand – just look to Electric Vehicles, where six cities contribute to 40% of sales.
In many cases, the hyper-competitive cities like Shanghai and Beijing can still be the most lucrative markets to target. They have become incredibly wealthy with GDP per capita adjusted for purchasing power now comparable to Switzerland. They have been wealthier longer, were allowed to travel abroad sooner, and as a result, have much more mature and sophisticated tastes. As a result, they are more ready for some Western products and services.
With both cities having more than 20 million people, just focusing on specific demographics or districts can itself produce material sales and a beachhead for further expansion.
A good example is American wholesaler Costco. Four years of testing the water with cross border commerce has given them confidence in demand for their products and formats. This month they announced they will launch two large Costco bricks & mortar stores in Shanghai. Unlike most of the 226 brands who opened their first stores centrally in Shanghai last year, Costco is opening in the outer districts of Minhang and Pudong New Area.
The bulk sales model like Costco hasn’t really taken off in China yet. Consumers have smaller kitchens and less storage than in the US, lower car usage for shopping, and a preference for freshness. However Costco is likely to have evaluated the last 4-years of ecommerce sales data to make informed decisions. If it will work anywhere, Minhang and far-flung Pudong are good bets. They are affluent areas with many large villa residences and a population who is more reliant on driving for daily needs. Costco’s first 33,000 square metre store opening in April 2019 will have 1,000 carparks. One would hope that they are integrating New Retail into their stores to ensure they are relevant and engaging for consumers.
Whether you are Costco, a fashion brand or selling vitamins, there is no consistent answer about which city is best to target. Brands would be wise to analyse different cities and regions before making a call. The cities a brand chooses to target should be an important factor in developing localised marketing strategies, selecting distributors and even lawyers familiar with local laws and regulations. Agencies such as China Skinny can assist with that. Go to Page 2 to see this week’s China news and highlights.
The lure of WeChat for brands is clear; last year it drove $32.9 billion of information consumption and $52.4 billion of traditional consumption including travel, food, shopping, hotels, and tourism, according to a report from the China Academy of Information and Communications Technology released this month. 34% of China’s data traffic happens on WeChat, versus the 14% on Facebook in North America.
There’s no denying WeChat’s enormous impact into everyday life in China as it has progressed to become a near unparalleled marketing tool. Yet its popularity has also made it hyper competitive. Official Accounts now number 20 million, with 3.5 million of those active, raising the bar for any brand hoping to make an impact on WeChat – seeing consumer expectations surge with it.
Last year over half of WeChat Official accounts saw less readership than in 2016. Whilst the way consumers use WeChat is continually becoming more sophisticated, many brands’ WeChat strategies haven’t done much to keep up. Few provide genuine value through entertaining and educational content. Even less build communities that engage and resonate with their target market and potential advocates. And many brands still see WeChat as a one-way communication stream to push content out to followers, and are yet to tap into the plethora of interactive functions available in the WeChat ecosystem or integrate offline touch points.
In most cases, WeChat initiatives do cost money. Many brands realise this and allocate a material budget for WeChat marketing. China Skinny gets many approaches from brands wanting a ‘WeChat campaign’, but often haven’t even defined their target market, positioning or what makes them unique from the thousands of other brands in their category. Without having these foundations, investing in WeChat will often be throwing good money after bad.
Although we hear so much about marketing opportunities on WeChat, in some cases an Official WeChat account isn’t appropriate for a brand. Take a small tourist attraction overseas for example. For many Chinese tourists, they are likely to only ever visit it once – and it will be just one of many places they’re seeing on their holiday. So few travellers will go to the effort and care enough to follow something that will fill their WeChat account with content that isn’t very relevant. Nevertheless, even if the attraction doesn’t have an Official Account, WeChat can still be very effective for that tourism business using less traditional advocacy initiatives or payments.
Brands shouldn’t blindly just invest in a traditional WeChat account just because everyone is talking about WeChat. They would be wise to ensure that they have the foundational strategy defined first and then consider the context of WeChat with regard to their product or service and positioning. Agencies such as China Skinny can assist with this.
For our British and European-based readers, China Skinny’s Mark Tanner will be in London at the Clavis Insight 2018 EMEA eCommerce Accelerator Summit on June 6 sharing ecommerce industry trends and case studies alongside GSK, L’Oreal, Unilever and PlanetRetail. More information here – we hope to see you there. Go to Page 2 to see this week’s China news and highlights.
Australia and China’s relationship has become a fascinating representation of the delicate balancing act between politics, economics and sovereignty that this modern age of globalisation presents to nations. And with no Western country more dependent on trade with China than Australia, this particular balance holds great intrigue.
To date, Australia has managed to strike a fine balance with the Middle Kingdom. It negotiated the ‘most favoured nation’ clause into the China Australia Free Trade Agreement and was a founding member of the China-led Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB). Yet it has deviated from China’s influence in several ways. Australia has remained firmly in the US camp for defence-related policies, it is yet to support President Xi’s pet Belt & Road project and is even exploring alternatives with China foes the US, Japan and India. It has been overtly distrustful of Huawei due to national security concerns, and its recent claims of Chinese espionage have prompted Chinese state media to call Australia an ‘anti-China pioneer’.
Regardless, Australia’s continued prosperity is becoming increasingly dependent on its relationship with China. Australian exports to China grew 25% last year to US$86 billion accounting for 29.6% of exports, with Japan being the next most important market at 12%. China is Australia’s highest-spending source of students and tourists. Australia has also been the world’s second largest recipient of Chinese investment since 2007, accounting for more than $90 billion of accumulated investment. In short, virtually every Australian is impacted by the flow of trade, people and investment from their Asian neighbour.
There are few better barometers to gauge the continued opportunities and threats in this relationship than the diverse range of Australian businesses on the ground in China and those with strong trade relationships. China Skinny was honoured to work with Austcham on the 2018 Westpac Australia-China Business Sentiment Survey which launched in Sydney yesterday.
161 businesses generously gave their time and information to help Australia understand the direction of its connection with China, identifying positive areas, and those that need work. The resulting report is full of fascinating insights from challenges, risks and competition to macro influences impacting Australian businesses in China.
Australian business sentiment was remarkably upbeat. 78% were positive about the next twelve months – higher than similar surveys of American, European, British and Canadian businesses – increasing to 83% for the 5-year outlook. This positive sentiment was particularly striking given the survey was conducted in November and December last year, a time when the China-Australian bilateral relationship was turning awry.
For 58% of respondents, China revenue outpaced other markets. These results have contributed to over half of businesses planning to increase their investment in China this year – with more investing than in 2017 and at a greater rate than their American cousins.
Arguably the most concerning finding from the survey was engagement of digital platforms which have become an important channel for B2C and B2B segments in China. Whilst we found the majority of respondents recognised innovation in technology, media and communications as the number 1 trend shaping businesses in China for the next 3-5 years, just 16% currently have a detailed China digital/ecommerce strategy in place. Those who did were 12% more likely to turn a profit in China and were 18% more likely to see China revenue outpace other markets.
The beautifully presented report (thanks Charlotte, Kate and Stephanie) delivers a valuable perspective into the overall health and opportunities for Australian businesses in China. It also provides a benchmark for your own performance – not just as an Australian business, but any foreign firm trading with China. Download your free copy here. Go to Page 2 to see this week’s China news and highlights.
China Skinny worked with Austcham to deliver the the 2018 Westpac Australia-China Business Sentiment Survey which was launched today in Sydney. Arguably the most concerning finding was the poor utilisation of digital platforms. Whilst we found the majority of respondents recognised innovation in technology, media and communications will be the number one trend shaping businesses in China for the next 3-5 years, just 16% currently have a detailed China digital or ecommerce strategy in place.
Chinese consumers and business people are among the world’s most engaged users of digital channels, spending an average of 200 minutes a day on their smartphones. The country’s ecommerce market is larger than the rest of the world combined and worth over $766.5 billion last year – more than 50 times the size of Australia’s online market.
A closer look into which businesses are proactively responding to digital/ecommerce opportunities shows that it can a powerful tool for B2B sectors. We found respondents from some of the least traditional digital industries leveraging online channels to their advantage, from facilitating instant B2B payments via mobile to relationship building. This position was supported by the survey which showed the B2B sector of ‘Professional and Business Services’, to be the most developed in this space, with +6.9% more likely to have a detailed plan in place.
Limited Diversification Of Digital Channels
In addition to the need for more businesses to establish a strategy, the survey also highlighted the importance of Australian businesses expanding their focus beyond WeChat and their own websites, which were the top two channels used to sell their products/services.
On the surface, it was promising to see Australian businesses embracing WeChat as the number one channel used to sell, as social commerce presents significant opportunities for clever social campaigns and advocacy-based sales. However, scratching the surface, the popularity of WeChat and own websites hint to a relatively primitive online strategy and reluctance to invest across multiple channels. Marketing and branding, logistics, warehousing and catering to the size of the market were cited as the biggest challenges for employing and growing ecommerce in China.
Whilst this expanded channel approach is recommended, it is important for businesses to understand that ecommerce in China is hyper-competitive and expensive to enter and maintain, particularly so for Tmall and JD. For many businesses, these two channels still present the significant opportunities – even after cost and competition is considered – yet there are gains to be had across niche and category-specific platforms, such Kaola, Red, Ymatou and VIP.
Extending the channel analysis further, the results suggest that Daigou’s are not being leveraged to their full potential, with just 3.7% of businesses using this channel to sell. Although not relevant for every category, some analysts estimate that Daigou collectively sent as much as US$470 million worth of Australian products to China in 2016 and are contributed significantly to the success of some of Australia’s highest profile products in the market such as Swisse, Blackmores and A2.
Cross-border commerce continues to be one of China’s hottest categories, with the number of ecommerce users who shopped abroad increasing from 34% in 2015 to 64% in 2017. Australian products’ enviable reputation is confirmed as the top origin for food for 44% of shoppers (iResearch). Nevertheless, just 13% of businesses rated cross-border as a top trend, suggesting that this area also represents an under-tapped opportunity for Australian businesses in China.
Looking Beyond Sales
The benefits for brands of a well-developed digital plan stretch far beyond sales. Ecommerce has become a powerful platform for marketing, integration into bricks & mortar and research – the data and behavioural insights derived from just Alibaba and JD boasts a sample of over 750 million consumers.
In the survey, we found businesses such as Metcash leveraging purchase behaviour made online to inform optimum product portfolios to sell offline in lower tier cities. Likewise, architects Woods Bagot use big data to inform optimal design of their mixed-used retail centres.
What Is The Opportunity Cost Of Not Having A Detailed Digital Strategy?
The analysis of the survey data showed there to be clear advantages to having a detailed strategy in place. The 16.2% of businesses with a developed plan were:
- +11.7% more likely to turn a profit compared to the average between 2016-2018 (Forecast)
- +18.1% more likely to state that China revenue would outpace other markets, and;
- +11.6% more optimistic about the 12-month outlook compared to those without a plan.
The full report contains a trove of interesting findings from challenges, risks and competition to macro influences. The findings deliver a valuable perspective into the overall health and opportunities for Australian businesses in China. They also provide a performance benchmark for any foreign firm trading with China, not just Australian.
Advertising on WeChat Moments can get your brand into Chinese consumers’ most personal of feeds, yet it is not cheap, with the CPM (cost per thousand impressions) north of $20 in bigger cities, with a 20% premium on short video ads.
With costs like that, brands really want to make sure their ads resonate with Chinese consumers to ensure they’re not spending a whole lot of money on campaigns that return very little. In developing ads, it is important to understand one’s target market’s motivations and emotional buttons to push (China Skinny can assist), and to marry that up with learnings from the most popular ads.
Last month, WeChat launched a poll asking users to vote for their ‘Your Favorite WeChat Moments Ad’ in 2017 – incentivising participants with random red envelopes. Below are the top ads as chosen by more than 600,000 WeChat users casting 1,378,948 votes.
Ads are listed in alphabetical order by Chinese name – click on the ad image to see the full video version:
#Original is never finished
Launched on 15 August, using a short video with local and foreign celebrities including HK singer Eason Chan, Chinese visual artist Chen Man, and American model and TV personality Kendall Jenner. The ad linked to a longer video with the celebs explaining how they pushed themselves to keep original. Viewers were invited to follow the account at the conclusion of the video.
Launched on 8 June, Tourism Australia was one of two winners who used a static image with accompanying text that translated to ‘Let’s explore the coastline in Australia’. Clicking on the ad took the user to a stunning a 30s video with a voiceover from Australian actor Chris Hemsworth, AKA Thor. Viewers were invited to follow the account.
Launched on 29 August, the short video promoting the 2018 BMW X1 combined fun visuals of the car with strobe shots of beautiful scenery and outdoor activities. Clicking on the ad, viewers are shown a longer video and car features, with a link provided at the conclusion of the ad where viewers can link to the BMW website to make an appointment to test drive the X1.
Launched on 13 October, a short video used alluring pink hues and eye catching shots of lips with designs and letters drawn from the new Dior Addict lip tattoo, long-wear coloured tint. Viewers could click on a link in the ad to purchase the lipstick.
Launched 28th Feb, an image showed the Millennial ‘models’ for Spring & Summary fashion photography with the ad linking to a WeChat post that explaining story behind each of the photos from famous Italian street photographer Franco Pagetti.
Launched on 28 April, the ad was an image for a pair of fancy wedding shoes, leading to a WeChat post with embedded video introducing their customized wedding shoes for both bride and groom.
Launched on 23 June, a high-action short video utilized Transformers to announce the Brand Day for Hasbro’s Transformer toys on JD. Clicking on the ad, viewers were taken to a longer ad with embedded links to purchase toys with exclusive discounts.
Australia took out another of the top spots with this ad launching on 27 June. A short video showed that Trip Advisor takes you to view a different Australia with animal, coastal and undersea shots. Viewers who clicked on the ad were taken to a detailed video showing how the featured KOLs experience Australia differently. When the video concluded, viewers are encouraged to download the Trip Advisor app and visit Tourism Australia’s 360-degree visual map.
#Love is everywhere
Launched on 7 September, a short video showed what makes the passengers travelling on metros look up, encouraging people to care about the world and discover the beautiful things around you. Clicking on the ad takes viewers to a longer video which educates viewers about the work Tencent charity is doing such as wildlife protection, poverty reduction and education. Following the ad, readers can find out how they can participate in upcoming charity events.
Launched on the auspicious day of 8 August, a short video introduced Montblanc’s Summit smart watch marking the exclusive WeChat launch. Clicking on the would provide viewers a link to order the watch, with the first 10 customers also receiving a special gift from the Montblanc.
Key themes and learnings from the top WeChat Moments ads:
- Video resonates with WeChat users. Although it costs 20% more, it is much likely to be noticed and engaged. 7/10 of the top ads were short video, and nine of the ads linked to a longer video.
- Recognisable brands are most likely to resonate on WeChat Moments feeds – other brands will need a stunningly creative campaign for breakthrough
- The top brands all had beautiful imagery/video, which is a fortunate characteristic of the popular beauty, fashion and tourism categories
- Call to action was varied: purchase, book/reserve, download the app or just follow the WeChat account.
WeChat Moment ads and other Tencent advertising is likely to continue to become ever more relevant for brands as the platform evolves. In Q3 last year, advertising revenue grew 63%. There’s still plenty of room for growth when you consider Facebook makes 97% of its revenue from advertising versus just 17% at Tencent.
Late last year Tencent announced they would bring together their seven internal units such as WeChat, QQ, gaming and finance to offer smarter, more targeted advertising using better coordinated user data and profiling. This will only grow Moments advertising effectiveness for brands.
Happy Year of the Dog! For our readers who took a break, we hope it was a blast.
One of the defining factors of the last lunar year was the Government cracking down on overly-leveraged Chinese conglomerates, particularly those who’d made “irrational” trophy acquisitions abroad. Some of Beijing’s highest profile targets have been in the news this month, with Wanda selling 17% of Atlético Madrid football club and $16 billion of deals since last year and Hainan Airline’s parent HNA hard times continuing. Yet the most extreme example is the elusive insurance company Anbang famous for its $1.95 billion purchase of New York’s Waldorf Astoria in 2014 and $30 billion in deals since. Last week, Anbang was taken over by the Government.
Whilst the tightened curbs on capital outflows and closer scrutiny on deals saw Chinese outbound investment plunge 29.4% last year, the Dog has started off with some well-known foreign brands becoming Chinese-owned, as Chinese companies continue to extend their global reach and appeal through acquisitions. The string of recent high profile investments mostly concern European luxury brands following 20% growth in the category in China last year, and Chinese nationals making up a third of global luxury purchases.
Last week, Club Med’s owners Fosun purchased France’s oldest fashion house Lanvin, following Shandong Ruyi’s acquisition of Swiss luxury brand Bally earlier this month. Volvo’s parent company Geely also became the largest shareholders of Germany’s Daimler. The announcement came not long after Daimler’s Mercedes-Benz was blasted by China for quoting the Dalai Lama – a symbolic move given the quote was on the China-banned Instagram and a sign that even marketing teams targeting markets miles from China may want to start reading up on Chinese sensitivities (subscribe here).
Yet whilst Chinese boardrooms may have spent the lead-up to the festival finalising luxury takeovers, on the ground China’s largest gifting period highlights other interesting insights.
At China Skinny we always watch CNY purchases closely, as the importance that Chinese place on these gifts for family and friends acts as a good barometer for what Chinese perceive as valuable and on-trend. This year’s theme was healthy and imported food. A People’s Daily article claimed imports accounted for 63% of Chinese New Year-related purchases whereas Alibaba’s platforms saw imported produce grow 300% from last year’s festival. Ymatou saw imported food grow 60% with Belgium chocolates, Spanish olive oil, American nuts and Australian oatmeal high in demand.
Overall, spending during China’s mega-festival increased 10.2% on last year – a sign that Chinese consumer confidence continues to bubble along, although it was slower than last year’s 11.4%. Other categories that saw runaway growth included smart home appliances and cinema, which jumped 67% from last year. We hope your fortunes follow suit this year. Go to Page 2 to see this week’s China news and highlights.
Earlier this month JD launched its first 7FRESH, a 4,000 square metre grocery store in Beijing that follows many of the new retail concepts from Alibaba’s Hema stores. JD heralded the supermarket the first of 1,000 stores that could open in the next three to five years. Hema also plans to significantly ramp up its presence, with 2,000 stores planned over the same period.
The focus of 7FRESH is a “personal and educational” hands-on shopping experience including “magic mirrors” that sense when customers pick up a product, and display product information such as nutritional facts and origin. JD also plans to introduce smart shopping carts allowing consumers to shop hands-free, which will be particularly helpful for shoppers with kids in tow. Facial recognition allows shoppers to check out and pay using the technology, able to walk out directly with the purchases or have them delivered within 30 minutes.
It is part of the growing new retail trend in China which has seen online giants shake up the bricks & mortar scape by creating richer, more convenient shopping experiences which drive significantly higher sales than traditional retail stores. Much like Alibaba’s Hema, JD is using big data from its 266.3 million shoppers to help craft the experience.
Physical stores still account for more than 80% of China’s retail overall and well over 90% of grocery sales, so JD and Alibaba’s battle for supremacy will be interesting to watch. Unlike the pure ecommerce world, where Alibaba has significantly higher margins by farming out most marketing, stock holding, fulfilment and customer service to brands, in the physical world it will be operating a more ‘full service’ model like JD.
Whilst JD’s market cap is just one-seventh of Alibaba’s, it has some very powerful organisations behind it. Tencent is the largest shareholder of JD, owning a fifth of the retailer. Its super-app WeChat leads China’s o2o and social media spheres, which will provide valuable data and influence to assist in the success of 7FRESH. Tencent’s new retail grocery ambitions will also be supported by the stake it purchased in Yonghui in December, yesterday’s investment in Carrefour’s China business and Saturday’s launch of its first unmanned WeChat store in Shanghai.
Walmart – the world’s largest company by revenue – owns 12% of JD and is likely to provide insights and support to 7FRESH from its wealth of retail experience including 22 years in China. It will not only help Walmart gain traction in China’s previously elusive ecommerce and new retail segments, but it will also provide plenty of learnings to roll out in its Walmart stores in China, and potentially to its stores in the US and globally.
In short, there is no better player than JD to take on the mighty Alibaba in the new retail game. Two hungry, data-focused, well-funded and well-oiled players, and a host of other competitors, will ensure the rate of innovation in China’s retail segment will continue to dazzle. It will also create another segment where China is likely to lead the world and possibly export its systems globally. New retail in China is happening, and happening fast, and brands that best understand and embrace it are most likely to succeed in the years ahead.
Who are China Skinny? We are a marketing agency on the ground in Shanghai conducting research, building strategies, and executing them for over 100 multinational brands both big and small, across 20 categories. What’s your biggest China problem? Contact us to see how we can help. Go to Page 2 to see this week’s China news and highlights.
Back in 2012 scouring content for the Skinny, it seemed almost every week there was another article praising KFC’s success in China. It was the Western pin-up brand; finding the much sought-after balance that tempted the masses with its alluring foreignness, but localised its offerings just enough to appeal to Chinese tastes – with the menu sporting old favourites like congee.
For every 10 bucks spent on fast food in China, KFC accounted for 4. It had almost 4,000 restaurants, with another 16,000 planned. There were movie placements, celebs munching on drumsticks, lovebirds courting one another over buckets … then Bird Flu and a series of scandals happened.
KFC has never really recovered from the dark days of ’13. In 2014 the menu was ‘overhauled’ for the first time in 27 years, there’s been a refresh of some decor, but if you were to go into most KFC restaurants in China they still bear a stark resemblance to the golden years pre-2013. China, Chinese consumers, and their tastes on the other hand have changed – dramatically. A simple scan of restaurants on Dianping or a stroll through a city mall or restaurant street and it becomes clear that there has been an evolution in China’s hospitality sector. La Liste’s annual ranking of the world’s restaurants noted the big trend is the rise of restaurants in China who are meticulously preparing and presenting food, and charging real money for it.
Contrast KFC with another mega-chain from America – Starbucks. Over recent years, the coffeehouse chain has constantly adapted to Chinese consumers and their ever-shifting expectations for newer, shinier offerings. They have played well to Chinese consumers’ inherent need for status from what they purchase, opening cafes in highly visible spots in city streets and premium office building foyers where they will be seen sipping on their Green Tea Crème Frappuccinos. The look and feel of cafes have also evolved to keep up with changing tastes, with some of the latest cafes having fit outs that wouldn’t look out of place against some of the fine dining establishments on Shanghai’s Bund.
Starbucks has always played to Chinese love of all things digital and typically been an early adopter and innovative user of technology. In the early days of WeChat, it cleverly used the limited functions by encouraging fans to send emoticons reflecting their mood, receiving a short music clip related to that mood. A little later in the game they accepted WeChat Pay with some alluring features such as the ability to gift friends and family a drink or two.
Last week’s launch of Starbuck’s mega reserve roastery in Shanghai is one of its most exciting initiatives yet. In addition to a beautiful fitout, complete with contemporary Chinese elements, the venue plays true to the ‘New Retail’ movement that is fast making its way into the bricks & mortar landscape. Integrating the Taobao app, augmented reality brings Starbuck’s story to life in a format that China’s millennials love. The app also allows them to skip the queue and buy merchandise, which improves both customer experience and the likelihood of increased sales and advocacy purchases.
Much like KFC was before 2013, Starbucks has become a much-cited case study – with good reason. It illustrates how brands can successfully keep up and stay relevant to the ever-changing needs of Chinese consumers through offline and online initiatives and product offerings. Their lessons don’t just apply in the hospitality trade, but are applicable for any foreign or local brand trading in China. Go to Page 2 to see this week’s China news and highlights.
Here’s some further encouraging news for China’s consumer market: in the first eight months of this year more babies were born into families with multiple children than those without – some 52% versus 45% in 2016. That will hearten the folk in Beijing who are seeking solutions to support its top-heavy population demographics, and should be music to the ears of brands peddling everything from infant formula to shared accommodation. During last weekend’s enormous Singles’ Day festival, baby products were among the top-selling categories.
Despite the increases, Chinese mothers continue to have one of the highest workplace participation rates globally, with 63% of females in the workforce versus 56% in the US and 50% globally. This is the result of a generation of the one-child policy, differing family structures which see grandparents caring for young ones and an admirable cultural belief that “women hold up half the sky.”
Even with the spike in those procreating, many Chinese remain uninformed on the subject. For example, more than 80% of adults in China have misunderstandings about contraception. This is the result of limited sex education and ‘birds and bees’ chats between parents and their kids. Sexual references are taboo in mainstream media and other channels. It was in 2015 when the big budget empress TV soap was taken off air to have Fanbingbing chest shots photoshopped out. Homosexual references are completely banned and even leggy models were even banned from car shows as Beijing does what it can to keep its population pure and innocent. This is reflected in consumer tastes and confirmed in numerous China Skinny research projects which has found an aversion to certain images deemed too sexy, with distinct preferences for the cutesy.
Yet behind the Hello Kitty knits and gaming youth, sexual innuendos are becoming more commonplace in China. Any visit to the local convenience store is a testament with battery operated devices, lubes and contraceptives taking prime real estate in point of sale displays by the counter. In a movement that represents greater self-confidence towards previously frowned upon areas, lingerie has become one of the fastest-growing fashion categories in China growing 20% annually for almost a decade.
There are much less subtle indicators of a trend towards an increased liberalness. Durex is leading the revolution by tiptoeing around the sensitive subjects to create engaging and timely communications that resonate with consumers online and get shared en masse. And while Durex and other foreign brands lead the category, a host of local condom makers are coming up with new innovative products to break into the fast-growing category.
Like everything in China, what appeals and is acceptable to consumers is constantly shifting. Hit the mark, and a brand can attain a cult-like following. Miss it, and there can be an anti-following. Agencies such as China Skinny can assure you are on the mark. Go to Page 2 to see this week’s China news and highlights.
Health has been one of the core themes in China’s consumer landscape over the past few years. Anyone who understands Chinese consumers’ approach to health will appreciate the unity based on the opposing and complementary relations of the yin and yang. A pillar of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) beliefs, the yin and yang need to be in harmony – when one aspect is deficient, the other is in excess.
Many consumers’ health, food and lifestyle decisions are based on maintaining this balance – this ensures a normal flow of qi so their body functions well and they can recover from illness more easily. Whilst people are increasingly living longer in China, partially due to advancements in modern medicine, the ancient TCM beliefs still hold significant importance for consumers. Many factors disrupting that harmony have only become an issue over the past generation.
We only need to look at the scary growth in breast cancer rates in Chinese women to understand how the yin and yang have been knocked off balance. Breast cancer has become the most common cancer among women in China with rates climbing 3.5% annually between 2000 and 2013, versus a 0.4% annual drop in the US. Much of the growth can be attributed to a generation of changes in Chinese lifestyles, such as urbanisation and an increase in professional work. This has led to lower childbearing rates and older mothers at birth, with a subsequent aversion to breastfeeding. Higher stress, less exercise, more unhealthy diets and increased alcohol consumption are also contributing. Each of these factors are common in many countries, but the rate and extremity of change has been much more dramatic in China.
Common household salt has been another factor disrupting the qi flow. On average Chinese eat more than double the recommended intake of salt. This is also a problem in many countries, the difference is 80% of consumption is attributable to Chinese consumers’ own cooking, whereas in the West it mainly comes from processed foods. The list of contributors goes on, as do their differences from other countries.
To help find balance, Chinese are increasingly making conscious decisions to consume healthy food and vitamins, in addition to doing more activities based on healthiness. The most popular of those is jogging. Interestingly, numerous studies have found the negative effects of exercising in pollution outweigh the benefits. This has done little to temper the enthusiasm of joggers in Chinese cities and their paraphernalia.
Many of the factors affecting consumers’ yin and yang balance are attributable to their lifestyle and dietary choices, however a number remain out of control of the average urban dweller. Air pollution may be the most visible, yet the water and soil pollution are often much more damaging to the balance and harder to restore. According to a national soil survey, one-fifth of farmland in China is contaminated by organic and inorganic chemical pollutants and by metals such as lead, cadmium and arsenic, with the most polluted areas concentrated around the wealthy cities where a large share of their food is grown. Unfortunately a paddock growing rice in soil oozing with cadmium seepage and irrigated with toxic water still often looks like a normal green rice paddy, making it harder to manage and resolve. Even the remarkable rise of meal delivery in China is contributing to waste that is affecting the food supply chain and consequent balance.
These influences have been a boon for foreign brands who are often perceived as healthier. Yet every brand trading on health and purity would be wise to understand how the yin and yang, and hot and cold fit into many consumers’ consideration set. Agencies such as China Skinny can assist with your new product development, your brand and positioning to ensure this is considered and relevant to Chinese consumers. Go to Page 2 to see this week’s China news and highlights.